Distinguish Between Khadar and Bhangar.

understanding soil types in south asia

In the quest to discern the disparities between Khadar and Bhangar, two alluvial plains found in northern India, we embark on a journey of exploration.

These plains, each with its unique attributes, offer fertile ground for cultivation and agriculture.

Khadar, a newly formed landscape, benefits from regular floodwaters that replenish its fertile soil.

Conversely, Bhangar, an older plain, boasts continuous deposition of alluvial soil, albeit less fertile.

Join us as we delve into a comprehensive comparison of these distinctive terrains, shedding light on their age, soil composition, fertility, and deposition patterns.

Key Takeaways

  • Khadar is newly formed, while Bhangar is old.
  • Khadar soil is renewed every year due to alluvial deposits and floodwater, while Bhangar has continuous deposition of alluvial soil.
  • Khadar is more fertile than Bhangar and supports high agricultural yield, while Bhangar is less fertile.
  • Khadar comprises of silt, mud, clay, and sand, while Bhangar comprises of calcium carbonate nodules called 'Kankars' and gravel sediment deposits.

Bhangar: Old Alluvial Plains

Bhangar, characterized as old alluvial plains, is an important geographical feature in the context of the knowledge on alluvial soil and its fertility.

The formation of Bhangar and Khadar differs in terms of their soil composition. Bhangar is formed through the continuous deposition of alluvial soil, which results in its characteristic gravel sediment deposits. On the other hand, Khadar is newly formed due to alluvial deposits, which leads to the presence of silt, mud, clay, and sand in its soil.

Another difference lies in the fertility of the two. Bhangar is less fertile compared to Khadar because it comprises calcium carbonate nodules known as 'Kankars.' In contrast, Khadar is more fertile as its soil is renewed every year by floodwaters, making it rich in humus and minerals.

Continuous Deposition of Alluvial Soil

How does the continuous deposition of alluvial soil contribute to the formation of Bhangar and Khadar? The continuous deposition of alluvial soil plays a crucial role in the formation of both Bhangar and Khadar. It leads to the renewal of soil every year in the Khadar region, making it more fertile compared to the Bhangar region. This process of continuous deposition involves the deposition of silt, mud, clay, and sand by floodwaters, which thins the layer of soil in Khadar. On the other hand, Bhangar is formed by the continuous deposition of alluvial soil over a long period of time. This soil renewal process contributes to the fertility of the Khadar region, making it suitable for cultivation and agriculture, while the Bhangar region remains less fertile.

Khadar Bhangar
Soil is renewed every year Continuous deposition of alluvial soil
More fertile Less fertile
Comprises of silt, mud, clay, and sand Comprises of calcium carbonate nodules called 'Kankars'

Less Fertile Than Khadar

The Bhangar region is characterized by its comparatively lower fertility in comparison to Khadar due to factors such as the presence of calcium carbonate nodules known as 'Kankars' and the deposition of gravel sediment deposits. The soil composition of Bhangar is not conducive to high agricultural productivity, making it less suitable for cultivation.

Here are four reasons why Bhangar is less fertile than Khadar:

  1. Kankars: The presence of calcium carbonate nodules in the soil restricts the movement of water and nutrients, hindering plant growth.
  2. Gravel sediment deposits: The deposition of gravel sediment reduces the availability of fine soil particles, which are essential for retaining moisture and providing nutrients to plants.
  3. Limited organic matter: Bhangar soil lacks sufficient organic matter, such as humus, which is crucial for improving soil fertility and enhancing nutrient availability for plants.
  4. Poor water-holding capacity: The soil in Bhangar has a lower capacity to retain water, leading to inadequate moisture levels for plant growth and reduced agricultural productivity.

Comprises of Calcium Carbonate Nodules Called 'Kankars

Bhangar comprises of calcium carbonate nodules called 'Kankars', which contribute to its distinctive soil composition. These Kankars are like little rocks that are made of calcium carbonate. They are found in the soil of Bhangar and make it different from Khadar.

The soil in Bhangar is not as fertile as Khadar because of these Kankars. These nodules make it harder for plants to grow and absorb nutrients from the soil. They can also affect the water drainage in the area. The impact of these calcium carbonate nodules on soil fertility is not good. It makes the soil less fertile and not suitable for agriculture.

Comprises of Gravel Sediment Deposits

Frequently comprising of gravel sediment deposits, Bhangar differs from Khadar in terms of its soil composition. Here are some key points to consider regarding this aspect:

  1. Formation process: Bhangar is an old alluvial plain that has experienced continuous deposition of alluvial soil over time. This process has resulted in the accumulation of gravel sediment deposits within its composition.
  2. Differences in agricultural productivity: Due to the presence of gravel sediment deposits, Bhangar is generally less fertile compared to Khadar. The gravel particles make the soil less suitable for cultivation and agricultural activities, limiting its productivity.
  3. Soil characteristics: Bhangar is characterized by the presence of calcium carbonate nodules called 'Kankars' along with the gravel sediment deposits. These nodules further contribute to the soil's composition and affect its agricultural potential.
  4. Impact on crops: The presence of gravel sediment deposits in Bhangar affects the soil's water-holding capacity and nutrient retention. This can lead to lower crop yields and reduced agricultural productivity in comparison to Khadar, which has a different soil composition.

Khadar: Newly Formed Plains Due to Alluvial Deposits

Khadar, also known as floodplain, is characterized by the newly formed plains resulting from the deposition of alluvial sediments. Khadar soil is renewed every year due to the floodwater that reaches and thins the layer of soil. This makes the Khadar soil more fertile compared to Bhangar.

The impact of floodwater on Khadar soil productivity is significant as it replenishes the nutrients and minerals in the soil, making it suitable for cultivation and agriculture. The floodwater brings silt, mud, clay, and sand, which enriches the soil, supporting high crop yield.

The difference in agricultural practices between Khadar and Bhangar is that Khadar soil requires regular flooding for its fertility, while Bhangar soil relies on continuous deposition of alluvial soil for its productivity.

Soil Is Renewed Every Year

Every year, the soil in floodplains undergoes a process of renewal, ensuring its fertility and suitability for agricultural cultivation. This soil renewal process has a significant impact on agricultural productivity. Here are four key aspects of this process:

  1. Floodwater deposition: During the flooding season, the floodwaters carry sediments and nutrients, depositing them on the floodplains. This deposition replenishes the soil with fresh layers of alluvial material, enriching it with essential minerals.
  2. Soil aeration: The flooding also helps in improving the soil's aeration. The force of the water helps to loosen the soil particles, allowing air to penetrate and reach the plant roots. This promotes root development and enhances nutrient absorption.
  3. Organic matter decomposition: Floodwaters bring organic matter from upstream areas, which gets deposited on the floodplains. Over time, this organic matter decomposes, releasing nutrients and increasing the soil's fertility.
  4. Soil moisture retention: The periodic flooding saturates the soil, increasing its water-holding capacity. This moisture retention ability of the soil ensures that crops have a continuous supply of water, even during dry periods, promoting healthy growth and high yields.

More Fertile Than Bhangar

Additionally, Khadar is inherently more fertile than Bhangar due to its rich composition of silt, mud, clay, and sand.

The benefits of Khadar soil for agriculture are immense. The high fertility of Khadar soil supports the growth of various crops and ensures high yields.

Farmers in the Khadar region employ effective farming techniques to maximize productivity. They use irrigation systems to provide water to the crops, as the floodwater in the Khadar region helps renew the layer of soil every year.

Additionally, farmers use organic fertilizers and crop rotation methods to maintain the fertility of the soil. These techniques, coupled with the fertile nature of Khadar soil, contribute to the success of agriculture in the region.

Comprises of Silt, Mud, Clay, and Sand

The composition of Khadar soil includes silt, mud, clay, and sand, which contribute to its fertility and suitability for agricultural activities. This type of soil is formed through a process of continuous deposition of alluvial sediment, brought by rivers during floods.

It is different from Bhangar soil, which is older and less fertile. Khadar soil is characterized by its rich content of silt, mud, clay, and sand, which provide essential nutrients and minerals for plant growth. In comparison to other types of soil, Khadar soil is more fertile and supports high yield.

Its formation process involves the annual renewal of soil due to floodwater, which brings in new layers of sediment. This makes Khadar soil a preferred choice for cultivation and agricultural practices.

Floodwater Reaches and Thins the Layer of Soil

During floods, floodwater reaches the layer of soil in Khadar, gradually thinning it. This has several effects on the soil fertility.

Firstly, the floodwater carries away the top layer of nutrient-rich soil, leading to a decrease in the overall fertility of the land.

Secondly, the constant flow of water washes away the minerals and organic matter present in the soil, further reducing its fertility.

Moreover, the floodwater also brings in sediments and debris from other areas, which can contaminate the soil and hinder its productivity.

In comparison, Bhangar plains do not experience floodwater renewal, as the continuous deposition of alluvial soil does not allow for the same level of soil erosion and thinning.

Hence, the fertility of Bhangar soil remains relatively stable over time.

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